Advanced chemical propulsion using Metallized Propellants (MP) can lead to significant reductions in launch mass for piloted Mars missions. MP allow the propellant density or the specific impulse I(sub sp) of the propulsion system, or both, to increase. It can reduce the propellant mass and the propulsion system dry mass. Detailed mass-scaling equations and estimates of the I(sub sp) for several MP combinations are presented. The most significant savings with MP are derived from increasing the payload delivered to Mars. For the mass in low Earth orbit (LEO), a metallized Mars transfer vehicle can deliver 20 to 22 percent additional payload. This 20-percent payload increase reduces the total number of Mars flights and therefore significantly reduces the number of Space Transportation System-Cargo launches for the entire Mars architecture. Using MP to reduce the mass in LEO per flight is not as effective as increasing the payload delivery capacity. The mass saving per flight, while delivering the same payload with a higher I(sub sp) system, is much smaller. Using MP in all of the Mars propulsion systems would produce a modest 3.3 percent LEO mass saving. This translates into a saving of 38,000 kg over the mass required with O2/H2 propulsion. A Mars excursion vehicle using Earth- or space-storable propellants for the ascent can be an alternative to storing cryogenic H2 on Mars. A space-storable system using oxygen/monomethyl hydrazine/aluminum (O2/MMH/Al) would deliver the lowest mass penalty over O2/H2. For lower-energy expedition missions the LEO mass penalty for using metallized O2/MMH/Al would be only 3 to 5 percent.